ASSOCIATION FOR THE
“… to face the difficulties emerged with the crisis, human beings must develop the capacity to link to their relationships, which they themselves and their predecessors have established, with a problematic attitude. That is, they must identify the changes to be introduced in their behavior, especially in its general social determinations. If they succeed in this passage - becoming aware of the elements of reality which, although bind them, they ignored or saw in an improper form – they will learn to behave in a way they did not know. That is, they will develop faculties of which, as mere members of social classes, they were not first bearers. As Marx points out in many of his writings: the process of transforming circumstances thus ends up coinciding with the process of self-transformation of individuals. Indeed, the individual changes of his own if he manages to change his own social being, that is, the structure of the relationships inherited, conquering a new freedom ... "
Giovanni Mazzetti, That bread to be shared, Bollati Boringhieri
Statute and Achievements 1985-2020
"The more the productive force of work grows, the more the working day can be shortened, and the more the working day can be reduced, the more the effectiveness of the work can grow. From a social point of view, labour productivity also increases with its savings. The latter includes not only the economy of the means of production, but also the exclusion of all work without utility. The capitalist mode of production imposes savings in each individual company, while its anarchist system of competition determines the most immense squandering of the social means of production and the workforce of society while forcing it to perform an infinity of functions that are currently indispensable, but in and of themselves superfluous."
“Given the intensity and productive power of work, the part of the social work daily required for material production will be much shorter, and the part of time gained for the free mental and social activity of individuals will therefore be greater. The more the work is distributed proportionally between all the members of society capable of working, and the least one stratum of society will be able to remove the natural necessity of working from itself and place it on another stratum. The absolute limit of the reduction of the working day is in this respect the general participation to work. In capitalist society free time is produced for a class through the transformation of the whole life time of the masses into time of work”.
Karl Marx (1867)
"In quite a few years – in our own lifetime I mean - we will be able to perform all the operations of agriculture, mines, industry and communication with a quarter of human effort to which we have been accustomed. For the moment the very high speed of these changes is hurting us and is causing problems that are difficult to solve ... such as unemployment due to the discovery of new means of economising the use of labour outrunning the path at which we can find new uses for it. However, this is only a temporary phase of maladjustment. All this means that in the long run, humanity is solving the economic problem. For many ages to come the old Adam in us will be so strong that everybody will need to do some work to be satisfied. We shall do more for ourselves than the wealthy do for themselves today, only too glad to have these tasks and habits. Beyond that, we will have to commit ourselves to spread this thin bread as widely as possible, ensuring that the remaining work be distributed among all. Three-hour shifts and fifteen-hour week could help us solve the problem for a great while. For three hours a day is quite enough to satiate the old Adam in most of us!"
John M. Keynes (1933)
What is the Association for the Redistribution of Labour?
A.RE.LA. was established in 1995 as an expression of the more general cultural initiatives carried out by the Aldo Pinci Association (a Roman partisan who died under fascist torture) since 1985. The goal is to create the cultural conditions for the acceptance of a generalized reduction in working hours with wages unchanged, made possible by a general redistribution of work and by the understanding of the limits of monetary relationships. A goal that has imposed itself since the late seventies, because of the continuous increase in labour productivity and the crisis of traditional Keynesian policies. In the first phase, A.RE.LA. cooperated closely with those political and cultural forces which advocated a reduction in the working week and a reduction in the working age. His representative met with members of the French Ministry of Labour, during the drafting of the 35-hour law, approved in 2000 in that country. ARELA actively collaborated with members of the Prodi government, which supported unsuccessfully a similar initiative in Italy. In the following phase seminars were organized in Milan with representatives of the German I.G. Metall, who had conquered a 35-hour week since 1984, and regular contacts were established with American scholars who, at the University of IOWA, were working on the same problem. In the most recent period, given the withdrawal of the orientation favourable to the redistribution of work, the scientific research activity carried out by the Study Centre with publications, seminars and conferences throughout Italy prevailed. The meetings of the research group are monthly and are open to interested people. (For information contact the secretariat.)
In the last forty years of activity, the Association has completed many research projects that have been published in the following books.
Scarcity and redistribution of work
The dynamics and the social changes of labour
From the crisis of communism to community action
(Editori Riuniti 1994)
Economics and working time
The man upside down. Is the transition beyond capitalism a matter of choice or a necessity?
The Counter-Reformation of Pensions (Datanews 1996)
That bread to be shared. General theory of the need to redistribute labour
(Bollati Boringhieri 1997)
Working time and forms of life
Mazzetti, Hunnicutt, Osti, Di Simone, Gatto, De Marco, Serafini, Fadda, Buffardi, Salvi, Cavallaro, Birbaum, Cette, Taddei,
The question of reducing working time,
Nord e Sud 1999
The furious pensioner. Challenge to social security orthodoxy
(Bollati Boringhieri 2003)
Against sacrifices. Government of technicians or congregation of clumsy sorcerers?
Still Keynes?! After the crisis, rampant misery or new development?
Give the fathers more to make their children have more too
Right to work, mockery or challenge?
Criticism of Degrowth
(Edizioni Punto Rosso 2014)
The future after the crisis
Against all barbarisms on social security (Asterios 2017)
Ten short lessons of critics of Economic policy
Completed research waiting for a publication
In addition to the works already published, the Association has concluded, and are in the process of being published, other works which constitute the result of the research activity carried out.
What if work were … without a future?
Why the crisis of capitalism and that of the welfare state are dragging on wage labor (published in handouts in online training)
Between the late eighties and the early nineties numerous studies were published that had the probable "end of the work" as the basic hypothesis. On the part of intellectuals of different orientations and on the part of most politicians there was a real barrage, to prevent that idea from finding an acceptance, or at least generating an in-depth cultural debate. Within a few years the hypothesis was wearily dismissed, due to the inability to deal with the different aspects of the matter. In this text, the problem is taken up again, stripping it of its naive original formulations and, through a reconstruction of the historical dynamics and an original reinterpretation of the nature of unemployment that is now rampant, it shows the vitality of an orientation aimed at dealing with the current difficulty in reproducing the wage labor relationship. In a close comparison with the thoughts of Marx and Keynes, as well as through an extensive analysis of the events that led to the crisis of the welfare state, it is shown that the only policy that can today allow to start a new phase of development is that of a redistribution of work among all, with a drastic reduction in individual work time for the same or a better wage.
To the discovering of the freedom that we are missing
A compass to meet with the crisis and create an alternative policy.
As Gramsci writes in the third notebook from prison, "the crisis consists in the fact that the old dies and the new cannot be born: in this interregnum the most morbid phenomena occur". In the text, an attempt is made to give a historical consistency to this interpretative perspective, to identify the obstacles of a mainly cultural nature which aggravate the current crisis and prevent the "birth of the new". In a complex and original reinterpretation of the events of the last half century, economic analysis intertwines with sociological, psychological, and anthropological analysis to demonstrate that the crisis is the exact opposite of what common sense believes. Not deviant behaviours cause the serious difficulties we are going through, but normal social practices, which are now completely inadequate with respect to the development that has taken place. It is not material poverty that limits our ability to enjoy a new phase of development, but the inconsistency of social mediations through which we pursue our goals. The first part of the text is dedicated to explaining the reasons for the serious economic and social difficulties we are going through, while the second part focuses on possible alternatives to put an end to what the author defines as "the inglorious thirty years". The goal is to identify the conditions for starting a new phase of development, also thanks to the development of an alternative policy - focused on a drastic reduction in individual work time - compared to the inconsistent ones that have been facing for thirty years in the European panorama.
At the foundations of the critique of Political economy
Karl Marx’s clear reasons on the nature of wealth, property, and development.
The research takes up the challenge of Claudio Napoleoni to find a coherent place for Marx's economic thinking. It criticizes his tentative to demonstrate that the labour theory of value could find a coherent allocation only in a philosophical perspective. It tries to demonstrate that the theory of labour value is the only one theoretical tool capable of coherently explaining the productive relationships of a mercantile and capitalist society. The research destined to face this problem is concluded and can give life to an autonomous publication. It will then be the starting point for further study to analyse the evolution of proprietary forms and the conditions of a new development.
Like water on the back of a duck
Is Keynesianism an exhausted reform or a betrayed revolution?
Taking up a challenge from Federico Caffè, the research tries to demonstrate that the "Keynesian revolution" contained within itself many elements of rupture with respect to the capitalist system. Far from not having had a coherent implementation, it has fully affirmed itself and produced the results for which it aimed at. Precisely for this reason, however, profound changes have taken place in the structure of society that require much more radical changes, which Keynes himself had clearly anticipated but which his followers have ignored. This transformed the crisis of the mid-seventies, which contained within itself the dynamic elements of a possible new development, into a real social disaster. The return of the liberals can obviously only aggravate the situation. It is therefore a question of taking up the thread of the Keynesian discourse where it was broken, to open the way towards the development of which it had foreseen both the difficulties and the need that face us today.
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN PROGRESS
Simultaneously with the disclosure of the activities already published and the definition of the projects concluded and being published, the Center for Studies and Initiatives is developing new research and study projects.
A study on the problem of corruption and its significance in relation to the crisis is currently underway and is being finalized. The provisional title of the first part of the work being drafted is Anatomy of corruption. Because the world should not be straightened but revolutionized. The research is expected to be completed by mid-2017.
A working group is currently working on identifying the elements of continuity between the development of credit, the emergence of the Keynesian social status and the pension reforms prior to the 1980s, to assess the devastation produced with the counter-reforms of the last thirty years.
The Study Center organizes a series of seminars every year to deepen the economic problems that weigh on our society unresolved.
The first rounds of meetings were held at the Arion Monti bookshop in Rome
1. Beyond the crisis - possible alternatives
2. Understanding the crisis - Study meetings on the crisis and how to overcome it
The Study Center has also organized and participated to seminars in
2. High schools
3. Trade union organizations
4. Cultural and political associations
5. Public administrations
An online training course is being developed, with the monthly publication on the pamphlet website of study brochures dedicated to explaining the different moments of the crisis.
Art. 1 - An association called "Association for the redistribution of labour" is hereby established, and will use, wherever possible, the acronym "A.RE.LA."
Art. 2 - The association has its headquarters in ROME, Via Nicola Salvi 68. It can be transferred within the same municipality with a simple decision of the administrative body, without it leading to a modification of the present Statute. The association may also have secondary offices in all places where the members deem it appropriate to organize themselves, also on a local basis.
Art. 3 - The association is a non-profit organization and has as its reason:
- carry out research and studies of a theoretical and empirical nature on the conditions that can allow a new social development, focused on the reduction of individual working time and on the redistribution of overall social work;
- give the results of these studies and researches the maximum diffusion, through the organization of conferences, debates, courses and through the production and distribution of printed publications and audio-visual tools;
- encourage the establishment, at local and national level, of bodies that fight for the reduction of individual working time and for the redistribution of overall social work;
- determine the establishment, at local and national level, of bodies tending to implement Articles 4 and 36, second paragraph, of the Constitution of the Italian Republic;
- encourage maximum cooperation at national and international level between those organizations which, in industrially mature countries, act to achieve a redistribution of work;
- investigate the problems inherent to the links between solving the unemployment problem in economically developed countries and developing economically backward countries.
- to pursue its goals, the association also organizes a Study and Initiative Center coordinated by the President.
Art. 4 - The duration of the association is established indefinitely.
Patrimony and social exercises
Art. 5 - The patrimony of the association is constituted by:
a) the initial paid-up fund;
b) movable and immovable property which will become property of the association;
c) admission fees;
d) any reserve funds created with budget surpluses;
e) any donations, payments and bequests;
The revenue of the association consists of:
a) the annual membership fees established by the Board of Directors;
b) contributions and disbursements resulting from events or participations in them;
c) any other income that contributes to increase social activity.
The financial year ends on December 31 of each year.
Within four months from the end of each year, the Economic and Financial Report will be prepared by the Board of Directors to be submitted to the shareholders' meeting for approval. During the life of the association, profits, operating surpluses, funds or reserves cannot be distributed to anyone, in any way, even in indirect forms.
Art. 6 - The members are all obliged to pay the social dues and are divided into:
a) founding associates;
b) honorary associates;
c) ordinary associates;
d) associated supporters.
a) Founders are those who result from the constitutive act of the association.
b) Honorary associates are the persons or entities that will be elected by the association's assembly on the proposal for particular merits in the field of research and studies on social development and redistribution of work, as well as those persons or entities who will have worked, as patrons, union leaders and political leaders, for the realization of this social aims.
c) Ordinary members are people who having reached the age of majority are admitted upon their request by resolution of the administrative body.
d) Supporters, bodies, associations and juridical persons whose application for admission will be accepted by the Governing Council and who will pay, upon admission, the annual membership fee established by the Council are associated with supporters.
Art. 7 - The members, in the persons of their representatives, will have the right to attend the social premises, to receive publications, and any other material produced by the association, to participate in all the events organized by the association.
Art. 8 - The qualification of associate may cease due to resignation, to arrears and unworthiness. Unworthiness must be declared by the assembly of members on the proposal of the Board of Directors and opinion of the Arbitrators if appointed.
Art. 9 - The association is managed by a board of directors composed of a maximum of seven members elected by the assembly. The board remains in office for three years from the date of appointment. In the event of the resignation or death of one of the directors, the board at the first meeting replaces it, with a resolution approved by the control body, if any.
The directors thus appointed remain in office for the residual term of the board of directors.
Art. 10 - The council appoints a President from among its members and can appoint a Secretary General.
The assembly can deliberate a compensation to the members of the Board of Directors.
Art. 11 - The board meets whenever the President deems it necessary or when requested by at least 40% of its members, and in any case once a year to deliberate on the Economic and Financial Report and possibly on the 'amount of the share.
The validity of the resolutions requires the effective presence of the majority of the members of the board and the favorable vote of the majority of those present; in the event of a tie, the vote of the chairman prevails.
The board is chaired by the President and, in his absence, by the oldest of those present.
Art. 12 - The board is vested with the widest powers for the ordinary and extraordinary management of the association, without limitations. It also appoints employees, clerks and collaborators, determining their remuneration; fill in the rules for the functioning of the association, the observance of which is mandatory for all members.
Art. 13 - The president:
- legally represents the association towards third parties and in court and has the corporate signature;
- takes care of the execution of the resolutions of the assembly and of the council;
- provides for what is necessary for the administration, organization, and functioning of the association.
Secretary General (if appointed)
Art. 14 - The general secretary has eminently operational and technical support functions, coordinates and harmonizes the work of the various bodies of the association, controls the fulfillment of the various tasks related to the life of the association, in order to guarantee its continuity and good functioning.
Art. 15 - The assembly of members is convened, even outside the registered office provided in Italy, by the Board, by e-mail or by any suitable means to inform the members, indicating the date, time, place and location. The agenda of the meeting, to be sent to each member, at least eight days before the date set for the meeting. The assembly can be convened on request signed by at least one tenth of the members entitled according to art. 20 of the civil code. The ordinary meeting must be convened at least once a year within four months of the end of the financial year for the approval of the Economic and Financial Report.
Art. 16 - All associates have the right to attend the assembly. Each member has the right to one vote, and can be represented, also by members of the board, except, in this case, for the approval of the Economic and Financial Reports and for the resolutions regarding the responsibility of the directors, in the assembly by proxy.
Art. 17 - The assembly is validly constituted and deliberates, with the majorities provided for by art. 21 of the Civil Code: - on the approval of the Economic and Financial Report and on the destination or coverage, respectively, of the operating surplus or deficit; - on the appointment of the members of the administrative body after setting the number of members; - on the appointment of the members the control body after setting the number of members: - on the appointment of the members of the scientific committees after setting the number of members; - on the dissolution of the association and devolution of the patrimony; - on amendments to the articles of association and the statute; - on the general guidelines and guidelines of the association; - on what else required by law or by statute - on what else required by law or by statute.
For amendments to this statute and for the dissolution of the association, a majority is required to deliberate with the favorable vote of at least three quarters of the members.
Art. 18 - The assembly is chaired by the President of the board or if not, the assembly appoints its own president.
The chairman of the meeting appoints a secretary and minutes of the meeting are drawn up and signed by the chairman and secretary.
Board of Auditors (if appointed)
Art. 19 - The Board of Auditors is made up of three standing members and two alternates; three financial years remain in office and are appointed by the assembly of associates which can also determine an emolument to the standing auditors.
The ineligibility and forfeiture as well as the functioning of the body and the rights and duties of the members of the college are governed by articles 2398-2408 c.c. valid for equity companies.
Board of Arbitrators (if appointed)
Art. 20 - Where the shareholders' meeting deems it appropriate, it appoints a Board of Arbitrators composed of three effective members and two alternates; they remain in office for three financial years and are appointed by the assembly from among the associates, or extraneous persons of proven competence and morality.
The college decides on any disputes that may arise between members, or between them and the association or its bodies.
They will judge ex bono et ex equo without procedural formalities (or ritually according to the rules of the Code of Civil Procedure). In case of failure to appoint the body, its functions are delegated to the Board of Auditors.
Scientific Committee (if appointed)
Art. 21 - The scientific committee is appointed by the assembly and is made up of three to five effective members and two alternate members, also elected from persons unrelated to the association; they remain in office for the period established by the assembly of members at the time of appointment; the assembly also appoints the President and can also determine a fee for the members.
The committee is responsible for:
- provide guidelines for the association's scientific activity, with the methods, terms and fees that the assembly will deem to set;
- perform consultative functions for the administrative body.
Art. 22 - In the event of dissolution of the association, for any reason, the assembly of members:
- determines the methods of liquidation and devolution of the residual assets. This must be intended for non-profit associations that have similar purposes;
- appoints up to three liquidators also among non-associates, establishing their powers.
Art. 23 - For anything not provided for in this statute, the provisions of the law apply.
CONSOLIDATION AND EXPANSION OF MEMBERSHIP
The Association has been operating on a voluntary basis for about twenty years. During this period he carried out mainly study activities, developing an articulated theory of the social crisis. He has published many texts so far, some of which have been widely distributed. Attempts to socialize those results through the various institutional ways (parties, trade unions, cultural centers, etc.), however, have produced only modest results. It is therefore considered necessary to attempt direct social exposure.
This requires an action aimed at consolidating the theoretical work already carried out but also at broadening the membership to involve those who are interested in the cultural approach of the Association in a more direct contact. This should be articulated by:
publication of a magazine on a quarterly basis, to be thought with an editor that will also distribute it in the most important bookstores;
translation into English of some of the works already published, and some of the popular articles, to facilitate their circulation in the rest of Europe;
rental of a larger office, in which to concentrate activities.
ONLINE EDUCATIONAL BOOKLETS
1. Less work or more work in the microelectronic age.
2. Unemployment beyond common sense.
3. What if labour were ... without a future? Part one
Because the crisis of capitalism and of the social state
carries wage labor away with it
4. What if labour were ... without a future? Part two
Wage labor beyond common sense
5. What if labour were... without a future? Part three
The beginning of the uncertain path beyond wage work
6. What if labour were ... without a future? Part four
The sunset of wage labor
7. What if labour were ... without a future? Part five
Beyond the right to work
8. What if labour were ... with no future? Appendix
Because the metaphor of the "end of work" is wrong
9. Is the community individual a productive force in gestation?
10. The crisis and the need to re-establish social relationships.
In memory of Federico Caffè and Primo Levi
1. To understand the welfare state and its crisis.
2. What perspective after the dissolution of politics.
3. What perspective after ... (Part two).
4. The man upside down. Beyond capitalism by necessity or by choice
5. The man upside down (Part two)
6. The man upside down (Part three)
7. The communist denied.
8. Beyond the crisis of communism.
9. To the discover of the freedom we are missing.
10. To the discovered ... (Part two)
1. To the discover of the freedom we are missing (Part three).
2. To the discovery of the freedom... (Part four)
3. Working time and forms of life
4. Working time…. (Part two)
5. Working time ... (Part three)
6. Working time ... (Part four)
7. That bread to share. General theory of the need for
8. That bread to share (Part two)
9. That bread to share (Part three)
10. That bread to share (Part four)
1. From the crisis of communism to community action.
2. From the crisis of communism ... (Part two)
3. From the crisis of communism ... (Part three)
4. From the crisis of communism ... (Part four)
5. From the crisis of communism ... (Part five)
6. From the crisis of communism ... (Part six))
7. Like water on the back of a duck. Keynesianism, an exhausted
reform or an aborted revolution?
8. Like water on the back ... (Part two)
9. Like water on the back … (Part three)